CRITICAL REVIEW


    Kálmán Rimanóczy Junior was the most important architect in Oradea (of Hungarian origin) during the period 1900-1912. Even though he had lived for only 42 years, in his short career of 20 years (1892-1912) he took a number of orders for public and private buildings.
    He also became famous as an entrepreneur, led by his father’s example, who was a builder. At the Stern Palace, dating back to 1904, signed by Dezső Jakab and Marcell Komor, the entrepreneurs were Kálmán Rimanóczy Junior and Vilmos Rendes.
    The architect distinguished himself by the high number of constructed buildings, by designing some public buildings representative for the town and also the ones meant for habitation and executed in various stylistic approaches. 
    The architecture programmes he addressed were quite varied, well solved in terms of a functional standpoint even when the majority of buildings had various purposes, such as gathering institutions, commercial spaces and dwellings. 
    Rimanóczy Junior is a fit for the 1900’s architecture (Secession) through some of his projects (houses and report buildings), yet he remains an eclectic-trained architect, realizing buildings of an extremely diverse plastic language. (Mariana Croitoru, 2015)
 


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    BIOGRAPHY


    (Oradea, 1870 - Vienna, July 12th 1912)
     
    Academic/specialized studies:
    ? - 1892 - He studied at the Polytechnic in Berlin where he obtained his architect diploma;
    ? - He participated in a specialized training programme in Czigler Győző’s workshop in Budapest, followed by his return to his native town.
     
    Other relevant information:
    Kálmán Rimanóczy (1840-1908), the architect’s father, had an independent building company. In 1867, he was invited to build in Oradea. Given the fact that his work as a builder was appreciated, he established himself in the town on the river Crisul Repede, where he continued working as an entrepreneur.
     


    PROJECTS


    Finished projects
    Urban and landscaping projects:
    1910 - He realized a project for the "Garden-City", the most promising project for a new neighbourhood. It was thought to be a popular one, with 109 parcels, and the projects realized by Kálmán Rimanóczy were standard economic houses, being available three house models, with two, three and four rooms. The initiative belonged to the architect who was the owner of the terrain.
     
    Architecture projects:
    1. Public buildings:
    1899-1900 - The Public Finances Palace, Oradea;
    1902-1903 - The City Hall*, Unirea Square no. 1, Oradea;
    1902-1903 - The Neuropsychiatry Hospital, Oradea;
    1906-1907 - The former Central House of Savings in Oradea (expanded in 1912);
    1908-1909 - The Oradea Bar Association;
    1912-1914 - The Apollo Palace**, Oradea.
     
    2. Private residences:
    1904-1905 - Moskovits Miksa Palace***, Oradea;
    aprox. 1903 - Kálmán Rimanóczy  jr. Palace, Oradea;
    1905 - Building on Str. Republicii corner of Traian Park nr. 1, Oradea;
    1905 - Rimanóczy Sen. Palace, Oradea;
    1907 - The summer villa of Kálmán Rimanóczy jr., Oradea (in rustic style);
    1912 - The former Bölönyi house, Oradea (individual aristocratic residence, on a large scale);
    1905-1912 - Report houses and buildings in eclectic style with Secession influences, Oradea.
     
    3. Religious architecture
    aprox.1903 - Residence of the Romanian Orthodox Episcopate, Oradea;
    1903-1905 - Greek-Catholic Episcopal Palace****, Oradea;
    1903-1905 - The Roman-Catholic Church, "Pogorarea Sfantului Duh", Oradea (eclectic styled church, with neo-Renaissance elements, a new tower and two smaller towers).
     
    Interior projects:
    The Apollo Palace’s interiors are to be noticed.
     
    Competition entries:
    1895 - The City Council have started the preparations for making room to a new edifice and, in 1896, an architecture contest was organized for the new City Hall. The first prize of the contest was equally won by the architect Rimanóczy Kálmán jr. together with other two contestants, the first one being entrusted with the task of presenting a synthesis of the three projects. After its elaboration, the executive works were auctioned and won by the same architect as a general entrepreneur.
     
    *One of the most representative buildings in Oradea, which sets the outline of the entire central area, is the City Hall, placed in Unirea Square, dominating the urban space next to the river Crisul Repede. On this site there existed until 1901 a building with a complex history: the first baroque Episcopal palace in town, erected by the Bishop Csáky Miklós around 1742. After 1776, the edifice with a relatively modest façade, on one single level and arranged around an inner courtyard, housed the Catholic Superior Gymnasium and then, between 1780-1874, the academy of Oradea, between 1874-1896, the state Arch-Gymnasium and, eventually, on a provisional basis, the palace of justice. The construction works started on February 26th1902 and were finished in October 1903, being almost exclusively executed by local companies. The solemn inaugural meeting took place on January 10th 1904.
     
    **In the nineteenth century, on the site of the current Apollo Palace, there existed an inn called Apollo. In 1910, the Town Council wished to exploit the land (by selling it or constructing a building so that the municipality could rent it) and they decided to build a new dwelling on that site. In the spring of 1911, Kálmán Rimanóczy Junior presented the project that was accepted and appreciated by the Municipal Judicial Council. The technical service and the Committees proposed the municipality to organize an auction for the construction of the building. In July 1911, the proposal of holding the auction was accepted.  In March 1912, the auction was held. Kálmán Rimanóczy Junior won the auction, having the best offer but he died on July 12th 1912. The architect’s widow required that the Municipal Council grant the engineer-architect Krausze Tivadar the right to coordinate the works for the new building, given the fact that he was the architect’s collaborator. In September 1913, the press from Oradea wrote that the works would be finished in the spring of 1914 but the building was finished later that year.
    ***The Moskovits Miksa Palace is representative for the type of report building, a symbol of the 1900’s architecture in Oradea, being one of the most spectacular buildings of this style, because of the rich ornamentation.  It was requested by the engineer Moskovits Miksa. The building was erected in 1904-1905. For the first time, on the structural frame were used plates of ribbed reinforced concrete (the Hennebique type), the supporting structure being designed by the university professor eng. Zielinszky Szilárd from Budapest.
     
    **** The Episcopal Greek-Catholic Palace was built on the initiative of the Greek-Catholic Bishop of Oradea , Demetrie Radu. The partial demolition of the old building started on August 10th 1903 (several parts of it were kept). The inauguration of the new Episcopal Palace took place on June 11th 1905.
     
    The building, known at that time as the Stern Palace, belonged to Stern Miklós. He bought the terrain and the house found at the location of the current building in 1904, The Town Council having decided to sell that terrain for 82.600 crowns. The new rentable building would be erected in 1904 and, in 1905, inaugurated. On June 1905, in the local paper, the news about the building of the Stern Palace was published. For this construction, two types of projects exist, the first one dating back to June 29th 1904, and the second one dating back to July 23rd 1904. On June 30th 1904, Stern Miklós submitted the request for its construction and it was granted on July 6th 1904.
     


    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    Author volumes:
    CONSTANTIN, Paul, Arta 1900 in Romania, Editura Meridiane, Bucuresti, 1972.
    CONSTANTIN, Paul, Dictionar universal al arhitectilor, Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1986.
    STEFANUT, Ada, Arta 1900 in Romania, Editura Noi Media Print, Bucuresti, 2008.
     
    Webgraphy:
    www.enciclopediamaghiara.ro/monumente_ardelene