CRITICAL REVIEW

    
    He is one of the founders of the national school of architecture, architect, decorator, restoration expert, and Romanian journalist, a champion of the preservation of artistic heritage and of a country-specific art. (Sidonia Teodorescu, 2015)
 


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    BIOGRAPHY


    (Iași, 1860 - Bacău, 1936)

    Academic/specialized studies:
    ? - Attended the Faculty of Letters;
    1885-1887 - He gained admission at École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, which he apparently dropped in 1887;
    1887-1889 - Specialization in France and Italy in historical monuments study, followed by a return to the country.
     
    Teaching:
    1902 - He began teaching a free course on architecture at the University of Iasi, and initiated an advanced course of regular drawing at  the boarding highschool, secondary girls’ school, and the technical school of arts and crafts, all in Iasi, and also started a free course of decorative art in the latter institution;
    1904-1911, 1912-1915 - professor of decorative arts at the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest.

    Professional Activity (affiliations, administrative positions, committees):
    1892 - Became a member of the Public Monuments Commission, an institution founded in the same year by Royal Decree;
    1893 - Elected deputy of Bacău, with the main task of studying abroad public education establishments, museums, theaters, and schools of arts and crafts. The reports published after his return are duly noted;
    1898 - He was appointed member of the Central Advisory Commission for Romania's participation in the Universal Exhibition in Paris (1900), exhibition he would subsequently attend as delegate commissioner of the Romanian Government;
    1901 - He was elected vice president of the Society of Architects in Romania;
    1904 - He was appointed professor of decorative arts at the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest;
    1905 - After the Third Congress of Public Art in Liège, three Romanians were elected as members of the International Institute of Public Art, including George Sterian;
     1905-1907 - Inspector General of Arts and Buildings;
    since 1906 - Director of the Department of National and Decorative Art within the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest, and manager of House of Arts.
    1909 - founder of the Domnița Maria School of Decorative Arts, Bucharest
    1926-1932 - He was employed as the chief architect of the City Hall in Bacău.

    Other relevant information:
    Founded on February 26, 1891, the Society of Romanian Architects, held a meeting on March 4, 1891, passing its statute and electing its first committee, consisting of Alexander Orăscu - president, Carol Beniș - vice president, Ștefan Ciocârlan - secretary, Ion Socolescu - cashier, and Al. Savulescu, George Mândrea and D. Maimarolu as members. One of the issues discussed was founding a School of Architecture, which was done in 1892, with Ion N. Socolescu as director and George Sterian as director of studies and founder of the school.
    During World War I, he organized various exhibitions in Paris to increase awareness about our country.
     


    PROJECTS


    Completed Projects
    Urban design and landscaping:
    1925 - The systematization plan of Târgu Mureş.
     
    Architectural projects:
    1894 - The casino in Slănic-Moldova, together with architect H. Rick;
    1894 - The hotel of the „Sfîntul Spiridon” Trusteeship of Iași, in Slănic-Moldova;
    1905-1910 - Cuţitul de Argint Church (Bărbătescu Nou), a project for the National Exhibition of 1906 in Câmpul Filaretului, designed by architect Nicolae Ghika-Budeşti, assisted by George Sterian. The church had been meant to reproduce Sfântul Nicolae Domnesc Church in Iaşi, built by Stephen the Great in 1491;
    1921 - George Sterian House, Mihai Eminescu Street, Bacău, Romania;
    1926-1932 - The Cultural Atheneum building, Bacău, Romania;
    1927 (?) - His own house in Băcau, monumental project, 10 Mihai Eminescu Street (designed in Neo-Romanian style);
    1895-1897 - Municipal Palace building (Cultural Athenaeum) in Bacău.

    Restoration projects:
    He designed the surveys of several religious establishments, in Bucharest, Iaşi, Piatra Neamţ, Craiova, Curtea de Argeş, Dorohoi, Bacău.
    1895 - Restoration of the National Theatre of Bucharest (inaugurated in 1852); 
    1897 - Restoration of Bărbătescu Vechi Church in Bucharest (iron consolidation and repainting). Cuţitul de Argint Church (Bărbătescu Nou) was built on its site, by architect Nicolae Ghika-Budeşti, assisted by George Sterian, between 1905-1910;
    1905-1907 - Restoration of Bucur Church in Bucharest;
    1920-1925 - Restoration of Cașin Monastery in Bacău and Sf. Ion Church in Piatra Neamţ;
    1924-1933 - Restoration of Precista Church in Bacău, action initiated by the Historical Monuments Commission. 

    Interior Projects:
    ? - He designed furniture for the National Exhibition of 1906 in Câmpul Filaretului (today, Carol I Park).
     
    Competitions:
    1895 - Participated in the first competition for Bucharest City Hall, in which 8 architects were invited as participants, of which only 3 eventually submitted their projects: Giulio Magni, Louis Blanc, George Sterian.

    Editorial and publishing activity:
    He was one of the most prominent architects writing for the journal „Analele Arhitecturii” (published between 1890 and 1895, under the guidance of architect Ion N. Socolescu), where he published articles on the history of Romanian architecture, fighting for the affirmation of our country-specific art and architecture.

    Founder and chief editor, and director of the journal "Architecture" (1906). In 1906, "Arhitectura" was founded by the Society of Romanian Architects, led by architect George Sterian", a journal that was published with a variable frequency until 1944, in 93 issues: in 1906 - 2 issues, in 1916 - 2 issues, in 1919 - a double issue, in 1924, 1925, 1926, 1930, 1931-1933, 1934 - one issue, in 1935 - 4 issues, in 1936 and 1937 - 3 issues, in 1938 - 2 issues, in 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942 - 4 issues, and for 1943-1944 - only one issue". (Vasile Ţelea, in Dicţionar al arhitecturii româneşti moderne - Sec. XIX, XX, XXI. Literele A-C) The cover of the first issue was drawn by Sterian.

    Arta Românească. România are sau nu o artă naţională?, in: „Arhitectura”, no. 1/1906, pp. 17-22.
    Arta Română, in: „Arhitectura”, no. 2/1906, pp. 61-69.
    Despre restaurarea monumentelor istorice în străinătate şi în România (Restauration des Monuments Historiques à l’étranger et en Roumanie), Iaşi, 1889.
     


    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    Books:
    POPESCU, Carmen, Le style national roumain. Construire une Nation à travers l’architecture. 1881-1945, Editura Simetria, Bucureşti, 2004.
    SOCOLESCU, Toma T., Fresca arhitecţilor care au lucrat în România în epoca modernă. 1800-1925, Editura Caligraf Design, Bucureşti, 2004.

    Dictionaries:
    CONSTANTIN, Paul, Dicţionar universal al arhitecţilor, Editura Ştiinţifică și Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1986.
    TEODORESCU, Sidonia, NICULAE, Raluca, ȚELEA, Vasile, BÎRSAN, Andrei, Dicţionar al arhitecturii româneşti moderne (sec. XIX, XX, XXI). Literele A-C - ediţie on-line, pdf, 2014, proiect beneficiar al unei finanţări din partea Uniunii Arhitecţilor din România (2012), din Fondul Timbrul Arhitecţilor; Bucureşti, 2014 - (https://issuu.com/dictionaruar).

    Periodicals:
    „Analele Architecturei”, nr. 3/ anul I (1890); nr. 9-10/ anul III (1892), p. 172.
    Semicentenarul Societăţii Arhitecţilor Români. 1891-1941, in: „Arhitectura”, nr. 1/1941 (nr. jubiliar).
    BUȘNEA, Romulus Dan, Un mare nume al arhitecturii româneşti: George Sterian, în: „Cultura”, 19 aprilie 2011,
    http://www.miscarea.net/proiectele-primariei-capitalei.htm.
    ENACHE, Bogadn C., Stilul arhitectural neoromânesc moldav al lui George Sterian, 
    http://www.lapunkt.ro/2013/06/27/stilul-arhitectural-neoromanesc-moldav-al-lui-george-sterian/
    TEODORESCU, Sidonia, Constantin I. Istrati, comisarul general al expoziţiei naţionale din 1906, in: Studii şi comunicări/DIS, vol. V/2012, pp. 337-345.